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IT For Local Self-Governance | Easy Land Records Information

Easy Land Records Information

While computerising land records for easy storage and retrieval seems like the first step an agrarian society should take, it is not always an easy task. In Uttar Pradesh (UP), the sheer size of the task was daunting— the state has 2.5 crore landowners spread over nearly one lakh villages in 305 tehsils of 70 districts. However, BhuLekh has taken off in the state, and the mammoth task was completed in just five months. BhuLekh is the UP government’s initiative to convert manual land records to digital form, in order to ensure uniformity in the maintenance of land records across the state and to overcome the shortcomings of the manual system of land records generation. Moreover, farmers can now get the Record of Rights (RoR) document instantaneously from the tehsil office, a task which earlier required them to visit tehsil headquarters repeatedly.

Project Land Records Computerisation (BhuLekh) Uttar Pradesh
Microsoft platform / technology/product/ application used : Windows 2000/XP; Visual Basic; FrontPage 2000; IIS 5.0; SQL Server 2000
Implementer National Informatics Centre, Lucknow unit
BhuLekh is now operational in all 305 tehsils under 70 districts. The legacy system of manual generation of RoRs has been replaced completely. Within the first five months of its operations, BhuLekh had provided nearly 1.5 million copies of RoRs to more than five million farmers. Within a year, the revenue generated from the system was Rs 70 million, through user charges for around five million RoRs.


The ultimate aim is to make BhuLekh an integrated land information system that can be used by citizens, banks, governments, NGOs and planners to access all kinds of information pertaining to land.

The solution involved converting manual records to digital format and web-enabling the system so that the database of records could be accessed over the internet. The task of converting manual RoR records to digital format was completed in record time, through suitable motivational strategies and by setting strict time frames to roll out the system at the tehsil level. Computerised records were updated village wise and the implementation was rolled out as soon as the records were updated for a particular tehsil. Training was provided to several revenue officials under different awareness programmes.

Around 700 of these officials are currently working on the system in different tehsils. Since UP is a large and populous state with insufficient internet connectivity, the implementation of BhuLekh included other delivery systems. Farmers could get  their records via post or courier, or could check through IVRS at registered PCO booths.

The solution provided has led to uniformity in maintenance of land records across the state and reduced farmer harassment to get copies of ownership documents. RoRs can be issued to them on demand by paying a service charge at the tehsil office. It has also made land records more secure, which can now be changed only through user’s authentication. Following its implementation, use of the land-use data recorded in the Khatauni has increased — it is useful for framing appropriate policies for different kinds of land and monitoring these policies. It has also increased government land revenue as the process of jamabandi and collection of lagan has become more efficient, minimised tenancy violations and encroachments because the relevant data is available with administrators and law enforcement agencies, instead of with the lekhpal and enhanced efficiency of record updation.             


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